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Oxygen Boltzmann Analysis

The Boltzmann equation can be solved to validate sets of electron impact collision cross sections. In fact, sets of collision cross sections are traditionally inferred by solving a two-term approximation to the Boltzmann equation and comparing the results to swarm experiments. This model solves a two-term approximation to the Boltzmann equation and compares the computed drift velocity and ...

Thermal Bridges in Building Construction - 2D Composite Structure

This example studies heat transfer in a composite two-dimensional structure. Four materials with distinct thermal conductivities k compose the structure. The top and bottom boundaries are facing environments respectively at 0°C and 20°C. The temperature distribution and the heat flux through the structure are compared with published data. This example corresponds to the case 2 described in ...

Neutralization of a Proton Beam through a Charge Exchange Cell

Gas cells have several applications in the design of scientific instruments. A gas cell is used to define a high-pressure region within the instrument's main vacuum system. For example, in this application, note we are designing a high-pressure region 100 mm long, with an operating pressure of 1e-3 Torr inside the collision cell and a main vacuum system pressure of 1e-5 Torr. In mass ...

Parameterized Window Preset Model

During the design of a building, environmental issues have gained considerable influence in the entire project. One of the first concerns is to improve thermal performances. In this process, simulation software are key tools to model thermal losses and performances in the building. The international standard ISO 10077-2:2012 deals with thermal performance of windows, doors and shutters. It ...

Journal Bearing with Cavitation

A journal bearing is composed of an outer cylinder (bearing) wrapped around an inner rotating journal (shaft), with a lubricant separating the two. Under certain operating conditions, cavitation can occur between the bearing and the journal, leading to component damage and failure. Knowing the rate of cavitation is helpful when determining the maximum applied load. Cavitation occurs when the ...

Walking Instability in a Washing Machine

Walking instability, due to non-uniform distribution of clothes, is a common problem in lightweight portable washing machines. This problem is more severe in horizontal-axis washing machines, which are more popular because of their high efficiency in spite of high manufacturing cost. This model simulates a simplified model of a horizontal-axis portable washing machine and predicts the verge of ...

Heat and Moisture in Building Material

The model is defined as a benchmark case in norm 15026:2007 annex A. The purpose of the model is to calculate the temperature and moisture profiles at different times after a change in the external conditions (temperature and relative humidity) inside a wall material (kind of concrete). It shows how to use the Heat and Moisture Transport interface.

Corner Cube Retroreflector

A corner cube retroreflector can be used to reflect rays so that their reinitialized trajectories are parallel to their initial trajectories, regardless of the angle of incidence. This tutorial model shows how to simulate the reflection of a bundle of rays at a cube corner retroreflector using the Geometrical Optics interface.

Ibuprofen Synthesis

Kinetic analysis of catalytic reactions is essential for understanding rate behavior as well as the reaction mechanism. Developing knowledge of intrinsic reaction kinetics and of rate equations is central to reaction engineering studies aimed at improving reactor design. This model illustrates the reaction kinetics of a complex chemistry occurring in a perfectly stirred tank reactor. The ...

Primary Current Distribution in a Lead-Acid Battery Grid Electrode

This 3D model example demonstrates the use of the Primary Current Distribution interface for modeling current distributions in electrochemical cells. In primary current distribution, the potential losses due to electrode kinetics and mass transport are assumed to be negligible, and ohmic losses are govern the current distribution in the cell. Here you investigate primary current distribution in ...