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Quarter-Wave Transformer

Transmission lines are used when the frequency of the electromagnetic signals is so high that the wave nature of the signals must be taken into account. A consequence of the wave nature is that the signals are reflected if there are abrupt changes of the characteristic impedance along the transmission line. Similarly, the load impedance, Z(L), at the end of the transmission line must match its ...

Semibatch Polymerization

As reactant monomer converts into polymer chains, the density of the reacting mixture often changes notably. In this example you will look at how this effect impacts the total production of polymer in a process. The liquid phase polymerization takes place in a semibatch reactor, where two operating conditions are compared. In the first scenario, the feed of monomer to the reactor is turned off ...

Relativistic Diverging Electron Beam

When modeling the propagation of charged particle beams at high currents and relativistic speeds, the space charge and beam current create significant electric and magnetic forces that tend to expand and focus the beam, respectively. The *Charged Particle Tracing* interface uses an iterative procedure, in this example, to efficiently compute the strongly coupled particle trajectories and ...

Modeling of an Enzyme-Based Biofuel Cell Anode

Enzyme-based biofuel cells (EBFCs) use biomass and specific enzymes known as biocatalysts in order to convert chemical energy into electrical energy. At the anode of an EBFC, the biomass (substrate) is oxidized to produce protons and electrons. Mediators are used in the anode to shuttle the electrons from enzymes to electrodes. At the cathode, the oxidant (oxygen) reacts with the protons and ...

Magnetic Frill

Feeding antennas with proper signals can be difficult. The signal is often described as a voltage, and voltages are not well defined in electromagnetic wave formulations. There are several tricks to model voltage generators in such situations, and one is the magnetic frill. This model shows the basic steps of defining a magnetic frill voltage generator for a dipole antenna, and it also ...

Copper Electroless Deposition

Electroless deposition or plating is a non-galvanic plating method that does not require any external electrical power. This technique is typically used for electroless plating of nickel, silver, gold and copper. In electroless deposition, partial oxidation and reduction reactions occur at the same electrode surface. The potential difference that exists between the equilibrium potentials for ...

Gas Box Designer

This application computes the back pressure in a network of pipes fed by a system of mass flow controllers (MFC). Each MFC supplies a given flow rate to one of the pipes, and can only function correctly if the back pressure remains below 760 Torr. The Pipe Flow Module is used to compute the pressure distribution inside the network of pipes and report whether a given design will meet the back ...

Microresistor Beam

Microresistors allow for quick and accurate actuation or structural movement directly related to the electricity that is applied to them. Microresistors can be used in many applications where small perturbations or deflections are required to be applied to devices, almost instantaneously. The Microresistor Beam app illustrates the importance of fully coupled, multiphysics simulations. An ...

Poroelastic Waves with Thermal and Viscous Losses (Biot-Allard Model)

In applications where pressure waves and elastic waves propagate in porous materials filled with air both thermal and viscous losses are important. This is typically the case in insulation materials for room acoustics or lining materials in car cabins. Another example is porous materials in mufflers in the automotive industry. In many cases these materials can be modeled using the Poroacoustic ...

Isotropic Compression With Cam-Clay Material Model

Isotropic compression is a common exercise in soil testing. The modified Cam-Clay model describes the relation between the void ratio and the logarithm of the pressure. In this example, a soil sample is placed inside cylinder 10 cm in diameter and 10 cm in height. Due to the symmetry, the model is solved in 2D axial symmetry. A boundary load produces isotropic compression conditions.