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Geometric Parameter Optimization of a Tuning Fork

This model computes the fundamental eigenfrequency and eigenmode for a tuning fork that is synchronized from SolidWorks via the LiveLink interface. The length of the fork is then optimized so that the tuning fork sounds the note A, 440 Hz.

Pressurized Orthotropic Container

A thin-walled container made of rolled steel is subjected to an internal overpressure. As an effect of the manufacturing method, one of the three material principal directions—the out-of- plane direction— has a higher yield stress than the other two. Hill’s orthotropic plasticity is used to model the difference in yield strength. The example also shows how to define and use curvilinear ...

Shell Conduction

This model simulates a static analysis of heat conduction in a thin conductive shell. This is a benchmark model where the result is compared with a NAFEMS benchmark solution.

Rössler Attractor

A Rossler attractor is a system of three non-linear, ordinary differential equations. The Rossler attractor is similar in nature to the Lorenz attractor. The non-linear equations can be solved in COMSOL by conveniently using the Massless formulation available in the Mathematical Particle Tracing interface.

Elastoacoustic Effect in Rail Steel

The elastoacoustic effect is a change in the speed of elastic waves that propagate in a structure undergoing static elastic deformations. The effect is used in many ultrasonic techniques for nondestructive testing of prestressed states within structures. This example studies the elastoacoustic effect in steels typically used in railroad rails. The analysis is based on the Murnaghan hyperelastic ...

Discharge and Self-Discharge of a Lead-Acid Battery

Lead-acid batteries are widely used as starting batteries for various traction applications such as cars and trucks and so forth. The reason for this is the fairly low cost in combination with the performance robustness for a broad range of operating conditions. However, one drawback of this battery type is that the inherent thermodynamics of the battery chemistry causes the battery to self ...

Argon Boltzmann Analysis

The electron energy distribution function (EEDF) plays an important role in the overall behavior of discharges. Analytic forms of the EEDF exist such as Maxwellian or Druyvesteyn, but in some cases they fail to fit the discharge physics. This tutorial model investigates the effects of various parameters on the electron energy distribution function and rate coefficients for an argon discharge.

Neutralization of a Proton Beam through a Charge Exchange Cell

Gas cells have several applications in the design of scientific instruments. A gas cell is used to define a high-pressure region within the instrument's main vacuum system. For example, in this application, note we are designing a high-pressure region 100 mm long, with an operating pressure of 1e-3 Torr inside the collision cell and a main vacuum system pressure of 1e-5 Torr. In mass ...

1D Lithium-Ion Battery Model for Internal Resistance and Voltage Loss Determination

This tutorial digs deeper into the investigation of rate capability in a battery and shows how the *Lithium-Ion Battery* interface is an excellent modeling tool for doing this. The rate capability is studied in terms of polarization (voltage loss) or the internal resistance causing this loss. A typical high current pulse test, namely a Hybrid Pulse Power Characterization (HPPC) test, is ...

Parameter Estimation for Nonideal Reactor Models

Real reactors can be modeled as combinations of ideal reactors. In this example the so-called "Dead zone model" is utilized. Two ideal CSTRs with interchange are set up to model the real reactor. One CSTR represents the highly agitated region and the other the less agitated region. For this, two parameters relating the volume and exchange rate of the two regions need to be found by comparing ...