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Semibatch Polymerization

As reactant monomer converts into polymer chains, the density of the reacting mixture often changes notably. In this example you will look at how this effect impacts the total production of polymer in a process. The liquid phase polymerization takes place in a semibatch reactor, where two operating conditions are compared. In the first scenario, the feed of monomer to the reactor is turned off ...

Slip Flow Benchmark

This model is a benchmark model for the Slip Flow interface. It is based on both analytic and numeric calculations. Air at atmospheric pressure flows through a conducting micro-channel connecting two reservoirs maintained at different temperatures. A flow between the two reservoirs develops as a result of thermal creep along the channel wall, which in turn produces a pressure gradient. At steady ...

In-Plane and Space Truss

Trusses are elements which can only sustain axial forces. You can use trusses to model truss works where the edges are straight as well structures like sagging cables. In the following example you first build and solve a simple 2D truss model using the 2D Truss interface. Later on, you analyze a 3D variant of the same problem using the 3D Truss interface. This model calculates the deformation ...

Quarter-Wave Transformer

Transmission lines are used when the frequency of the electromagnetic signals is so high that the wave nature of the signals must be taken into account. A consequence of the wave nature is that the signals are reflected if there are abrupt changes of the characteristic impedance along the transmission line. Similarly, the load impedance, Z(L), at the end of the transmission line must match its ...

Behavior of Power Law Fluids in a Mixer

This model shows how to use simulations to predict power numbers with Power Law fluids in a mixer. It simulates the behavior of flow in a flat bottom tank with a single four-blade pitched impeller. The flow was modeled as laminar and the frozen rotor approach was used to solve the discrete governing equations in one quarter of a baffled tank. The calculated power numbers were compared with ...

MEMS Pressure Sensor Drift Due to Hygroscopic Swelling

For their integration in microelectronic circuits, MEMS devices are bonded on printed circuit boards and connected with other devices. Then, the whole circuit is often covered with an epoxy mold compound (EMC) to protect the devices and their interconnects with the board. The epoxy polymers used for such applications are subject to moisture absorption and hygroscopic swelling, which can lead to ...

Quadrupole Mass Filter

A quadrupole mass filter (QMF) is a key component of a modern mass spectrometer. A QMF uses direct current (DC) and alternating current (AC) electric fields to analyze positive or negative ions by mass to charge ratio. A QMF consists of 4 parallel rods spaced equidistantly, the ratio of the rod radius to the radius of the inscribed circle is 1.148. Opposite pairs of rods are electrically ...

Argon Boltzmann Analysis

The electron energy distribution function (EEDF) plays an important role in the overall behavior of discharges. Analytic forms of the EEDF exist such as Maxwellian or Druyvesteyn, but in some cases they fail to fit the discharge physics. This tutorial model investigates the effects of various parameters on the electron energy distribution function and rate coefficients for an argon discharge.

Discharge and Self-Discharge of a Lead-Acid Battery

Lead-acid batteries are widely used as starting batteries for various traction applications such as cars and trucks and so forth. The reason for this is the fairly low cost in combination with the performance robustness for a broad range of operating conditions. However, one drawback of this battery type is that the inherent thermodynamics of the battery chemistry causes the battery to self ...

Atmospheric Corrosion

This model simulates atmospheric galvanic corrosion of an aluminum alloy in contact with steel. The electrolyte film thickness depends on the relative humidity of the surrounding air and the salt load density of NaCl crystals on the metal surface. Empirical expressions for the oxygen diffusivity and solubility are also included in the model in order to derive an expression for the limiting ...