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Eigenmodes in a Muffler

In this model, compute the propagating modes in the chamber of an automotive muffler. The geometry is a cross-section of the chamber in the Absorptive Muffler example. The model’s purpose is to study the shape of the propagating modes and to find their cut-off frequencies. As discussed in the documentation for the Absorptive Muffler, some of the modes significantly affect the damping of the ...

Circular Waveguide Filter

A circular waveguide filter is designed using a 2D axisymmetric model. Six annular rings added to the waveguide form circular cavities connected in series, and each cavity cutoff frequency is close to the center frequency of the filter. The simulated S-parameters show a bandpass frequency response.

Electrodeposition of a Microconnector Bump with Deforming Geometry in 3D

This model simulates the shape evolution of a microconnector bump over time as copper deposits on an electrode surface. Transport of cupric ions in the electrolyte occurs by convection and diffusion. The electrode kinetics are described by a concentration dependent Butler-Volmer expression. The model is an extension to 3D of the Electrodeposition of a Microconnector Bump in 2D example.

Buoyancy–driven μPCR for DNA Amplification

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is one of the most effective methods in molecular biology, medical diagnostics, and biochemical engineering in amplifying a specific sequence of DNA. There has been a great interest in developing portable PCR-based lab-on-a-chip systems for point-of-care applications and one strategy that seems very promising is natural convection-based PCR. This model studies ...

Terzaghi Compaction

Fluids that move through pore spaces in an aquifer or reservoir can shield the porous medium from stress because they bear part of the load from, for instance, overlying rocks, sediments, fluids, and buildings. Withdrawing fluids from the pore space increases the stress the solids bear, sometimes to the degree that the reservoir measurably compacts. The reduction in the pore space loops back and ...

Flexible and Smooth Strip Footing on Stratum of Clay

A common verification model for geotechnical problems is of a shallow stratum layer of clay. In this model, a vertical load is applied to the clay strata top surface and the static response and collapse load are studied. The clay is modeled as an elastic-perfectly plastic material and the Mohr-Coulomb yield condition under plane strain conditions is used. The response is studied using an ...

Soluble Lead-Acid Redox Flow Battery

In a redox flow battery electrochemical energy is stored as redox couples in the electrolyte, which is stored in tanks outside the electrochemical cell. During operation, electrolyte is pumped through the cell and, due to the electrochemical reactions, the individual concentrations of the active species in the electrolyte are changed. The state of charge of the flow battery is determined by ...

Quadrupole Mass Filter

A quadrupole mass filter (QMF) is a key component of a modern mass spectrometer. A QMF uses direct current (DC) and alternating current (AC) electric fields to analyze positive or negative ions by mass to charge ratio. A QMF consists of 4 parallel rods spaced equidistantly, the ratio of the rod radius to the radius of the inscribed circle is 1.148. Opposite pairs of rods are electrically ...

Evanescent Mode Cylindrical Cavity Filter

An evanescent-mode cavity filter is resonant at a frequency lower than its original fundamental mode frequency. Evanescent mode resonance can be realized by creating a discontinuity or reactance inside the cavity. The basic model was modified by the addition of a metal box at either end representing a housing. Inside a dielectric substrate and a microstrip line coupled into the cavity. The ...

Molecular Flow Through an S-Bend

This model computes the transmission probability through an s-bend geometry using both the angular coefficient method available in the Free Molecular Flow interface and a Monte Carlo method using the Mathematical Particle Tracing interface. The computed transmission probability by the two methods is in excellent agreement with less than a 1% difference. This model requires the Particle Tracing ...